Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Materials: Supplementary Desk S1: the comprehensive information of ingredients in FL and GZ

Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Materials: Supplementary Desk S1: the comprehensive information of ingredients in FL and GZ. 17 approximately.9 million people perish of cardiovascular diseases in the world each year [3] and 7.4 million perish of CHD [4]. It really is well-known that CHD PH-797804 can be an archetypical multifactorial disease [5]. Single-target medicines fail while an end to this multifactorial disease [6] usually. In addition, repeated or constant high-dose of an individual specific drug can produce drug resistance [6, 7]. Therefore, the discovery of new multitarget drugs is highly necessary. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), mainly Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for thousands of years to treat CHD and its related diseases, as it is characterized by multiple components, and it can treat diseases through multiple pathways and targets [8, 9]. Herb pairs (combination of two herbs) are the simplest form of herbal combination and compatibility [10], which have therapeutic features and clinical significance in Chinese herbal medicine. The Fuling-Guizhi herb pair (FGHP) is a famous formula originated from Linggui Zhugan Decoction, a well-known Chinese medicinal formula consisting of four Chinese herbal medicines(Chinese name, Fuling), (Chinese name, Guizhi), Koidz. (Chinese name, Baizhu), and (Chinese language name, Gancao), documented in the classic ancient book compiled by Zhongjing Zhang JinGuiYaoNue. FGHP continues to be used clinically for the treating CHD commonly. However, the system where FGHP really helps to deal with CHD continues to be unclear, which impedes its additional medical spread and application in a few degree. Network pharmacology lately has turned into a fresh and a robust method of systematically reveal the concepts and function of the PH-797804 complex biological program combined with the fast improvement of bioinformatics [11, 12], and it is becoming an efficient method to preliminarily observe actions at the machine level also to explore the pharmacological system of TCM in the molecular level [12, 13]. Consequently, network pharmacology-based research was adopted with this scholarly research to research underlying Rabbit Polyclonal to ITGB4 (phospho-Tyr1510) actions system of FGHP in CHD. First, the actions of FGHP was expected utilizing a network pharmacological method. Subsequently, an isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) experiment was carried out on rats to confirm the network analysis-based data. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Network Pharmacology-Based Analysis 2.1.1. Active Component ScreeningFirstly, chemical compounds in Fuling (FL) and Guizhi (GZ) were obtained from the Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ETCM, 9090/ETCM), the Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID,, and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP, The active components were the filtered by combining oral bioavailability (OB) 30% and drug-likeness (DL) index 0.18 as suggested by the TCMSP database. 2.1.2. Target Prediction of FGHP against CHDSWISS ( and STITCH ( databases were used to identify the potential human protein targets of FGHP’s active compounds. At the same time, CHD-related human genes were downloaded from OMIM ( and DisGeNET PH-797804 ( databases. Then, the candidate targets of FGHP against CHD were obtained by overlapping the above targets with a Venn diagram ( 2.1.3. Gene Ontology and Pathway Enrichment AnalysisThe gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis of the candidate targets were carried out using the DAVID ( to obtain the related functions and pathways. 2.1.4. Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) DataThe protein-protein interaction (PPI) data were gathered from STRING ( database, which supplies information regarding the predicted and verified experimental interactions of proteins [14], with species simply limited to (#6954) (CST, Massachusetts, USA), and anti- 0.05 was assumed as statistically significant. 3. Results 3.1. Results of Network Pharmacology-Based Analysis 3.1.1. Active Components and Target Identification of FGHPTotally, 33 components of Fuling (FL) and 220 components of Guizhi (GZ) were obtained from the ETCM, TCMID, and TCMSP (Table S1). All active components should satisfy the filtering rules, OB index 30%.